BBC製作的節目,讓全世界再度開始討論低碳飲食,被認為是可以有效減重又不用節食的減肥方法。
但是,是真的有效?還是跟只是節目製作人創造的另一陣坊間減肥法的熱潮?
讓我們來看看科學研究的結果。
以下是近十年中發表在各國際重要醫學期刊的論文:
<以低碳飲食和減重作為研究主題>
  1. Shai I, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 2008;359(3);229–41.
  2. Gardner CD, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and learn Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. The a to z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2007;297:969–977.
  3. Brehm BJ, et al. A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:1617–1623.
  4. Samaha FF, et al. A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2074–81.
  5. Sondike SB, et al. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;142(3):253–8.
  6. Aude YW, et al. The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat. A Randomized Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2141–2146.
  7. Volek JS, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition & Metabolism 2004, 1:13.
  8. Yancy WS Jr, et al. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:769–777.
  9. Nichols-Richardsson SM, et al. Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High- Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:1433–1437.
  10. Krebs NF, et al. Efficacy and Safety of a High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents. J Pediatr 2010;157:252-8.
  11. Summer SS, et al. Adiponectin Changes in Relation to the Macronutrient Composition of a Weight-Loss DietObesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Mar 31. [Epub ahead of print]
  12. Halyburton AK, et al. Low- and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:580–7.
  13. Dyson PA, et al. A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabet Med. 2007 Dec;24(12):1430-5.
  14. Keogh JB, et al. Effects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:567–76.
  15. Volek JS, et al. Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet. Lipids 2009;44:297–309.
  16. Partsalaki I, et al. Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25(7-8):697-704
<以糖尿病與低碳飲食為主題的研究>
  1. Daly ME, et al. Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes–a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2006 Jan;23(1):15–20.
  2. Westman EC, et al. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low- glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr. Metab (Lond.)2008 Dec 19;5:36
由上面的研究,我們可以說,低碳(+高蛋白)飲食已經是被科學認可的減肥方式,而且除了減肥,還有維持心血管健康、降低糖尿病機率和調整血脂許多其他好處。
為什麼會有用呢?因爲胰島素。當我們吃進碳水化合物,胰島素就會受到刺激而分泌出來。胰島素升高的時候,會告訴脂肪細胞不要分解儲存的脂肪。所以當我們又吃麵包、又喝汽水,可能中間再吃個充滿糖的零食,一整天中胰島素水平都很高,就造成儲存的脂肪一直都沒辦法被利用,當然就胖了。
從1950年代開始被提出,慢慢蔚為風潮的低碳飲食,也慢慢影響了更多大型食品製造商或零售食品商修改現存食譜或是推出以低碳飲食、減糖為訴求的新品(包括台灣前一陣子排隊排到天昏地暗的Krispy Kreme)。
但是,人生最重要的就是這個但是,請各位一定要注意,人體需要均衡而充足的營養來維持正常生機能運作,而「調整飲食內容和習慣」不等於「節食」,低碳飲食也不是「零」碳飲食。碳水化合物是人體必需的養分之一,不可完全不吃,請參考如何進行低碳飲食的建議。當然也必需根據個人體質、有無特殊疾病調整噢。
P.S.:歡迎轉貼或拷貝以上整理文獻,若是有相關的專業人士需要更新資訊,也非常歡迎:)
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